Indus Valley Civilization -- a land of urban culture. No other civilization in the world has so captured the imagination of historians and common people alike. Mystery surrounds its origins, its language and its decline. The Harappan Town Planning System is the most famous of all the ancient civilizations. When money and thoughts were lavishly spent on building temples, designing tombs for kings, building fancy ziggurats; ignoring the common people who were living in mud houses and utter poverty, there was a civilization which spent its money and thoughts in constructing well-planned cities and buildings keeping the sanitation and convenience of the people in mind. The civilization was Indus valley civilization, and the people were Indus people. No civilization not even the Egypt and Mesopotamia civilization had shown so much advanced and modern planning as the Indus valley civilization.
World History witnessed wars, struggles, succession wars, revolts since its beginning. Indus valley civilization was the only civilization where there was no war, no struggles, no revolts. The Indus Valley people made deals, not war, and created a stable, peaceful, and prosperous culture. The Harappan Civilization has significance for not only historians and archaeologists but for the common man also. It was best known for its spectacular city planning and had surpassed all other contemporary civilizations.
The rail tracks were laid down in the middle of the nineteenth century in the western part of the then undivided India. British engineers smashed bricks from crumbling buildings and rubble heaps to build the railway bed, in a town called Harappa. Alexander Cunningham, the then director of the Archeological Survey of British India, thought the brick ruins were related to seventh-century Buddhist temples. In the year 1920,Indian archeologists undertook excavations on one of these mounds in Harappa. The archaeologists expected to find something, but never imagine that a city lay beneath the earth. Further excavation at different places in India and Pakistan, led to discovery of another large city Mahonjodaro and the recovery of at least eighty villages and towns related to this newly discovered civilization. They named it Harappan after the first city they discovered.